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In this study, we carried out a detailed analysis of lipids and lipoproteins in CSF collected from patients affected by AD, by other forms of dementia, or from non-demented controls in order to look for major differences in the lipid and lipoprotein composition among the different diagnostic groups.Lipoproteins were isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and combined with sensitive and specific apolipoprotein assays enabling the direct lipoprotein analysis on small sample amounts.In order to understand how the HDL particles in the brain compartment are synthesized and remodeled, we investigated in human CSF the presence of minor lipoprotein subclasses such as preβ particles by bi-dimensional non-denaturing gel electrophoresis.The physiological role of CSF lipoproteins as substrates for lipolytic enzymes such as lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and for lipid transfer proteins such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) was investigated.As you might expect, she has traveled the world, but her specialties and interests lie in the Caribbean. She is a member of exclusive GI Vacation Consultant program with El Dorado Spa, and Azul Hotels by Karisma which are adults only and family-friendly resorts and great for honeymoons, wedding destinations, romance, anniversary and family vacations.Val and her husband went to Couples Negril, Jamaica in November 2015 to renew t40th-anniversary wedding vows.Finally, cholesterol efflux from rat astrocytes by human CSF lipoproteins was correlated with the CSF (apo)lipoprotein content.
It is clearly established that the inheritance of the apolipoprotein (apo) E4 allele is associated with increased risk of developing AD at a younger age (1, 3).CSF lipoproteins induced a significant cholesterol efflux from cultured rat astrocytes, suggesting that they play an active role in maintaining the cholesterol homeostasis in brain cells. Some reports link the development of AD with lipid metabolism in the brain: lipid concentrations, especially that of fatty acid and phospholipids and to a lesser extent cholesterol, which are reduced in the CSF of AD patients (16). Its most important functions are to redistribute lipids needed for neurite growth through receptor-mediated uptake and to interact with the amyloid β peptide (4–7).We investigated the lipoprotein distribution and composition in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or affected by other types of dementia in comparison to non-demented controls. In analogy with the metabolism of lipids in the peripheral circulation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lipids are transported by lipoproteins.
We found slightly decreased apolipoprotein (apo)E and cholesterol concentrations in CSF of AD patients and moderately increased apo A-I concentrations, while in patients suffering from other types of dementia the apo A-I CSF concentration was increased. Although several reports describe the composition of CSF lipoproteins (4, 8–12), their detailed structure and functions are only poorly understood.
Other reports show that a reduction in brain tissue membrane lipids (gangliosides, phospholipids, and cholesterol) is correlated with reduced synaptic function in patients with early onset form (EOAD) Alzheimer's disease, independent of the β amyloid depositions (17).